Drainage System And Its Significance

Drainage System And Its Significance

Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used or in form of storm water). It must be distinguished from flood management which is the prevention of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and mixed system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and disposes them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and disposes it separately. Within the mixed system, each the storm water and domestic water are conveyed through the identical pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleansing velocity of (.6-1
m/s). This self cleansing velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes ought to be placed at interval of one hundred-120m for the aim of sustaining and servicing of the sewer. It should be noted that waste water in the sewer are usually transported by gravitational force quite than mechanical means (pumping) for convenient sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; the topography of the world ought to be well understood.

The storm water flow could be estimated by .278CIA the place C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is often got from table which is a function of factors that have an effect on infiltration. From rainfall data I could be estimated.
A will be estimated by utilizing planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map . The waste water from industry, commercial centers and domestic uses are normally estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the customers' discharges by means of using questionnaire and personal interview. The population of people and number of industries needs to be noted for this estimation.

The overall steps in structure sewers embrace:

Establish complete map of the area including road contour, topography and utilities
Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
Manholes are shown with a dot at all its essential areas as the junctions and its intermediate level of one hundred-120m interval
Sewers are design to observe natural topography
Sewers are mostly branch network
Sewers or drains are often situated alongside the road
Design approach for sewers is as follows;
Estimate manning constant and select slope
Compute the part factor
Get the most effective hydraulic section either rectangle or trapezoid
Check the satisfaction of minimum velocity
Addition of adequate freeboard to keep away from overflowing
The disposal of the waste water could possibly be handled or not treated. Nevertheless, the remedy is often by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse vital for economic growth. The treated or untreated waste may very well be used as a source of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and could possibly be used as a source of recharge for ground water.

It is apparent within the cities of the developing countries that probably the most of development industries don't take note of all of the above mentioned process. Because of this storm water follows drains that aren't specified for them or overflows the drains there by inflicting erosions. On the other hand, some of the storm water are stagnant within the drains there by turning into a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This could end in improve of malaria and water related disease within the vicinity. All this is because; most authorities in such cities have not but understand the essential of drainage systems and the role it performs in social- financial development.

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